Filonov, Pavel (1883-1941) – 1912 They Who Have Nothing to Lose (Russian Museum)
Filonov was born in Moscow. In 1908, he entered St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, from which he was expelled in 1910. In 1910–1914, he took part in the arts group Soyuz Molodyozhi created by artists Elena Guro and Mikhail Matyushin. In 1912, he wrote the article The Canon and the Law, in which he formulated the principles of analytical realism, or “anti-Cubism”. According to Filonov, Cubism represents objects using elements of their surface geometry but “analytical realists” should represent objects using elements of their inner soul. He was faithful to these principles for the remainder of his life.
In 1929, a large retrospective exhibition of Filonov art was planned at the Russian Museum; however, the Soviet government forbade the exhibition from going forward. From 1932 onward, Filonov literally starved but still refused to sell his works to private collectors. He wanted to give all his works to the Russian Museum as a gift so as to start a Museum of Analytical Realism. He died of starvation in 1941 during the Nazi Siege of Leningrad.